112 Common Literary Devices: Definitions, Examples, and Exercises

Sean Glatch  |  January 26, 2023  | 

Common literary devices, such as metaphors and similes, are the building blocks of literature, and what make literature so enchanting. Language evolves through the literary devices in poetry and prose; the different types of figurative language make literature spark in different ways.

Consider this your crash course in common literary devices. Whether you’re studying for the AP Lit exam or looking to improve your creative writing, this article is crammed with literary devices, examples, and analysis.


Let’s start with the basics. What are literary devices?

What are Literary Devices?

Literary devices take writing beyond its literal meaning. They help guide the reader in how to read the piece.

Literary devices are ways of taking writing beyond its straightforward, literal meaning. In that sense, they are techniques for helping guide the reader in how to read the piece.

Central to all literary devices is a quality of connection: by establishing or examining relationships between things, literary devices encourage the reader to perceive and interpret the world in new ways.

One common form of connection in literary devices is comparison. Metaphors and similes are the most obvious examples of comparison. A metaphor is a direct comparison of two things—“the tree is a giant,” for example. A simile is an indirect comparison—“the tree is like a giant.” In both instances, the tree is compared to—and thus connected with—something (a giant) beyond what it literally is (a tree).

Other literary devices forge connections in different ways. For example, imagery, vivid description, connects writing richly to the worlds of the senses. Alliteration uses the sound of words itself to forge new literary connections (“alligators and apples”).

By enabling new connections that go beyond straightforward details and meanings, literary devices give literature its power.

What all these literary devices have in common is that they create new connections: rich layers of sound, sense, emotion, narrative, and ultimately meaning that surpass the literal details being recounted. They are what sets literature apart, and what makes it uniquely powerful.

Read on for an in-depth look and analysis at 112 common literary devices.

Literary Devices List: 14 Common Literary Devices

In this article, we focus on literary devices that can be found in both poetry and prose.

There are a lot of literary devices to cover, each of which require their own examples and analysis. As such, we will start by focusing on common literary devices for this article: literary devices that can be found in both poetry and prose. With each device, we’ve included examples in literature and exercises you can use in your own creative writing.

Afterwards, we’ve listed other common literary devices you might see in poetry, prose, dialogue, and rhetoric.

Let’s get started!

1. Metaphor

Metaphors, also known as direct comparisons, are one of the most common literary devices. A metaphor is a statement in which two objects, often unrelated, are compared to each other.

Example of metaphor: This tree is the god of the forest.

Obviously, the tree is not a god—it is, in fact, a tree. However, by stating that the tree is the god, the reader is given the image of something strong, large, and immovable. Additionally, using “god” to describe the tree, rather than a word like “giant” or “gargantuan,” makes the tree feel like a spiritual center of the forest.

Metaphors allow the writer to pack multiple descriptions and images into one short sentence. The metaphor has much more weight and value than a direct description. If the writer chose to describe the tree as “the large, spiritual center of the forest,” the reader won’t understand the full importance of the tree’s size and scope.

2. Simile

Similes, also known as indirect comparisons, are similar in construction to metaphors, but they imply a different meaning. Like metaphors, two unrelated objects are being compared to each other. Unlike a metaphor, the comparison relies on the words “like” or “as.”

Example of simile: This tree is like the god of the forest.
OR: This tree acts as the god of the forest.

What is the difference between a simile and a metaphor?

The obvious difference between these two common literary devices is that a simile uses “like” or “as,” whereas a metaphor never uses these comparison words.

Additionally, in reference to the above examples, the insertion of “like” or “as” creates a degree of separation between both elements of the device. In a simile, the reader understands that, although the tree is certainly large, it isn’t large enough to be a god; the tree’s “godhood” is simply a description, not a relevant piece of information to the poem or story.

Simply put, metaphors are better to use as a central device within the poem/story, encompassing the core of what you are trying to say. Similes are better as a supporting device.

Does that mean metaphors are better than similes? Absolutely not. Consider Louise Gluck’s poem “The Past.” Gluck uses both a simile and a metaphor to describe the sound of the wind: it is like shadows moving, but is her mother’s voice. Both devices are equally haunting, and ending the poem on the mother’s voice tells us the central emotion of the poem.

Learn more about the difference between similes and metaphors here:

Simile vs. Metaphor vs. Analogy: Definitions and Examples

Simile and Metaphor Writing Exercise: Tenors and Vehicles

Most metaphors and similes have two parts: the tenor and the vehicle. The tenor refers to the subject being described, and the vehicle refers to the image that describes the tenor.

So, in the metaphor “the tree is a god of the forest,” the tenor is the tree and the vehicle is “god of the forest.”

To practice writing metaphors and similes, let’s create some literary device lists. grab a sheet of paper and write down two lists. In the first list, write down “concept words”—words that cannot be physically touched. Love, hate, peace, war, happiness, and anger are all concepts because they can all be described but are not physical objects in themselves.

In the second list, write down only concrete objects—trees, clouds, the moon, Jupiter, New York brownstones, uncut sapphires, etc.

Your concepts are your tenors, and your concrete objects are your vehicles. Now, randomly draw a one between each tenor and each vehicle, then write an explanation for your metaphor/simile. You might write, say:

“Peace, like an uncut sapphire, gleams with labor.”

Have fun, write interesting literary devices, and try to incorporate them into a future poem or story!

3. Analogy

An analogy is an argumentative comparison: it compares two unalike things to advance an argument. Specifically, it argues that two things have equal weight, whether that weight be emotional, philosophical, or even literal. Because analogical literary devices operate on comparison, it can be considered a form of metaphor.

For example:

Making pasta is as easy as one, two, three.

This analogy argues that making pasta and counting upwards are equally easy things. This format, “A is as B” or “A is to B”, is a common analogy structure.

Another common structure for analogy literary devices is “A is to B as C is to D.” For example:

Gordon Ramsay is to cooking as Meryl Streep is to acting.

The above constructions work best in argumentative works. Lawyers and essayists will often use analogies. In other forms of creative writing, analogies aren’t as formulaic, but can still prove to be powerful literary devices. In fact, you probably know this one:

“That which we call a rose / By any other name would smell as sweet” —Romeo & Juliet by William Shakespeare

To put this into the modern language of an analogy, Shakespeare is saying “a rose with no name smells as a rose with a name does.” The name “rose” does not affect whether or not the flower smells good.

Analogy Writing Exercise

Analogies are some of the most common literary devices, alongside similes and metaphors. Here’s an exercise for writing one yourself.

On a blank sheet of paper: write down the first four nouns that come to mind. Try to use concrete, visual nouns. Then, write down a verb. If you struggle to come up with any of these, any old word generator on the internet will help.

The only requirement is that two of your four nouns should be able to perform the verb. A dog can swim, for example, but it can’t fly an airplane.

Your list might look like this:

Verb: Fall
Nouns: Rain, dirt, pavement, shadow

An analogy you create from this list might be: “his shadow falls on the pavement how rain falls on the dirt in May.

Your analogy might end up being silly or poetic, strange or evocative. But, by forcing yourself to make connections between seemingly disparate items, you’re using these literary devices to hone the skills of effective, interesting writing.

4. Imagery

Is imagery a literary device? Absolutely! Imagery can be both literal and figurative, and it relies on the interplay of language and sensation to create a sharper image in your brain.

Imagery is what it sounds like—the use of figurative language to describe something.

Imagery is what it sounds like—the use of figurative language to describe something. In fact, we’ve already seen imagery in action through the previous literary devices: by describing the tree as a “god”, the tree looks large and sturdy in the reader’s mind.

However, imagery doesn’t just involve visual descriptions; the best writers use imagery to appeal to all five senses. By appealing to the reader’s sense of sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell, your writing will create a vibrant world for readers to live and breathe in.

The best writers use imagery to appeal to all five senses.

Let’s use imagery to describe that same tree. (I promise I can write about more than just trees, but it’s a very convenient image for these common literary devices, don’t you think?)

Sight imagery: The tree spread its gigantic, sun-flecked shoulders.
Sound imagery: The forest was hushed, resounding with echoes of the tree’s stoic silence.
Touch imagery: The tree felt smooth as sandstone.
Taste imagery: The tree’s leaves tasted bitter, like unroasted coffee beans.
Smell imagery: As we approached the tree, the air around it smelled crisp and precise.
There are two other, less discussed types of imagery: organic and kinesthetic imagery. Organic imagery refers to descriptions of internal sensations—things happening within the body. Kinesthetic imagery is imagery of motion and movement—think of the sensations one might feel when running against the wind.
Organic imagery: The tree felt its xylem collapse at the news. (This is also an example of personification, since trees can’t “feel” the way people feel.)
Kinesthetic imagery: The tree cooled down as its own leaves rushed against its bark.

Notice how these literary device examples also used metaphors and similes? Literary devices often pile on top of each other, which is why so many great works of literature can be analyzed endlessly. Because imagery depends on the object’s likeness to other objects, imagery upholds the idea that a literary device is synonymous with comparison.

Imagery Writing Exercise

Want to try your hand at imagery? You can practice this concept by describing an object in the same way that this article describes a tree! Choose something to write about—any object, image, or idea—and describe it using the five senses. (“This biscuit has the tidy roundness of a lady’s antique hat.” “The biscuit tastes of brand-new cardboard.” and so on!)

Then, once you’ve written five (or more) lines of imagery, try combining these images until your object is sharp and clear in the reader’s head.

Imagery is one of the most essential common literary devices. To learn more about imagery, or to find more imagery writing exercises, take a look at our article Imagery Definition: 5+ Types of Imagery in Literature.

5. Symbolism

Symbolism combines a lot of the ideas presented in metaphor and imagery. Essentially, a symbol is the use of an object to represent a concept—it’s kind of like a metaphor, except more concise!

Symbols are everywhere in the English language, and we often use these common literary devices in speech and design without realizing it. The following are very common examples of symbolism:

A few very commonly used symbols include:

  • “Peace” represented by a white dove
  • “Love” represented by a red rose
  • “Conformity” represented by sheep
  • “Idea” represented by a light bulb switching on

The symbols above are so widely used that they would likely show up as clichés in your own writing. (Would you read a poem, written today, that started with “Let’s release the white dove of peace”?) In that sense, they do their job “too well”—they’re such a good symbol for what they symbolize that they’ve become ubiquitous, and you’ll have to add something new in your own writing.

Symbols are often contextually specific as well. For example, a common practice in Welsh marriage is to give your significant other a lovespoon, which the man has designed and carved to signify the relationship’s unique, everlasting bond. In many Western cultures, this same bond is represented by a diamond ring—which can also be unique and everlasting!

Symbolism makes the core ideas of your writing concrete.

Finally, notice how each of these examples are a concept represented by a concrete object. Symbolism makes the core ideas of your writing concrete, and also allows you to manipulate your ideas. If a rose represents love, what does a wilted rose or a rose on fire represent?

Symbolism Writing Exercise

Often, symbols are commonly understood images—but not always. You can invent your own symbols to capture the reader’s imagination, too!

Try your hand at symbolism by writing a poem or story centered around a symbol. Choose a random object, and make that object represent something. For example, you could try to make a blanket represent the idea of loneliness.

When you’ve paired an object and a concept, write your piece with that symbol at the center:

The down blanket lay crumpled, unused, on the empty side of our bed.

The goal is to make it clear that you’re associating the object with the concept. Make the reader feel the same way about your symbol as you do!

6. Personification

Personification, giving human attributes to nonhuman objects, is a powerful way to foster empathy in your readers.

Personification is exactly what it sounds like: giving human attributes to nonhuman objects. Also known as anthropomorphism, personification is a powerful way to foster empathy in your readers.

Think about personification as if it’s a specific type of imagery. You can describe a nonhuman object through the five senses, and do so by giving it human descriptions. You can even impute thoughts and emotions—mental events—to a nonhuman or even nonliving thing. This time, we’ll give human attributes to a car—see our personification examples below!

Personification (using sight): The car ran a marathon down the highway.

Personification (using sound): The car coughed, hacked, and spluttered.

Personification (using touch): The car was smooth as a baby’s bottom.

Personification (using taste): The car tasted the bitter asphalt.

Personification (using smell): The car needed a cold shower.

Personification (using mental events): The car remembered its first owner fondly.

Notice how we don’t directly say the car is like a human—we merely describe it using human behaviors. Personification exists at a unique intersection of imagery and metaphor, making it a powerful literary device that fosters empathy and generates unique descriptions.

Personification Writing Exercise

Try writing personification yourself! In the above example, we chose a random object and personified it through the five senses. It’s your turn to do the same thing: find a concrete noun and describe it like it’s a human.

Here are two examples:

The ancient, threadbare rug was clearly tired of being stepped on.

My phone issued notifications with the grimly efficient extroversion of a sorority chapter president.

Now start writing your own! Your descriptions can be active or passive, but the goal is to foster empathy in the reader’s mind by giving the object human traits.

7. Hyperbole

You know that one friend who describes things very dramatically? They’re probably speaking in hyperboles. Hyperbole is just a dramatic word for being over-dramatic—which sounds a little hyperbolic, don’t you think?

Basically, hyperbole refers to any sort of exaggerated description or statement. We use hyperbole all the time in the English language, and you’ve probably heard someone say things like:

  • I’ve been waiting a billion years for this
  • I’m so hungry I could eat a horse
  • I feel like a million bucks
  • You are the king of the kitchen

None of these examples should be interpreted literally: there are no kings in the kitchen, and I doubt anyone can eat an entire horse in one sitting. This common literary device allows us to compare our emotions to something extreme, giving the reader a sense of how intensely we feel something in the moment.

This is what makes hyperbole so fun! Coming up with crazy, exaggerated statements that convey the intensity of the speaker’s emotions can add a personable element to your writing. After all, we all feel our emotions to a certain intensity, and hyperbole allows us to experience that intensity to its fullest.

Hyperbole Writing Exercise

To master the art of the hyperbole, try expressing your own emotions as extremely as possible. For example, if you’re feeling thirsty, don’t just write that you’re thirsty, write that you could drink the entire ocean. Or, if you’re feeling homesick, don’t write that you’re yearning for home, write that your homeland feels as far as Jupiter.

As a specific exercise, you can try writing a poem or short piece about something mundane, using more and more hyperbolic language with each line or sentence. Here’s an example:

It was a brutally hot 75 degrees Fahrenheit. The April spring sun boiled blood and sent birds exploding. I’m sorry that I’m mowing my lawn on THE SURFACE OF THE SUN. (…and so on!)

A well-written hyperbole helps focus the reader’s attention on your emotions and allows you to play with new images, making it a fun, chaos-inducing literary device.

8. Irony

Is irony a literary device? Yes—but it’s often used incorrectly. People often describe something as being ironic, when really it’s just a moment of dark humor. So, the colloquial use of the word irony is a bit off from its official definition as a literary device.

Irony is when the writer describes something by using opposite language. As a real-life example, if someone is having a bad day, they might say they’re doing “greaaaaaat”, clearly implying that they’re actually doing quite un-greatly. Or a story’s narrator might write:

Like most bureaucrats, she felt a boundless love for her job, and was eager to share that good feeling with others.

In other words, irony highlights the difference between “what seems to be” and “what is.” In literature, irony can describe dialogue, but it also describes ironic situations: situations that proceed in ways that are elaborately contrary to what one would expect. A clear example of this is in The Wizard of Oz. All of the characters already have what they are looking for, so when they go to the wizard and discover that they all have brains, hearts, etc., their petition—making a long, dangerous journey to beg for what they already have—is deeply ironic.

Irony Writing Exercise

For verbal irony, try writing a sentence that gives something the exact opposite qualities that it actually has:

The triple bacon cheeseburger glistened with health and good choices.

For situational irony, try writing an imagined plot for a sitcom, starting with “Ben lost his car keys and can’t find them anywhere.” What would be the most ironic way for that situation to be resolved? (Are they sitting in plain view on Ben’s desk… at the detective agency he runs?) Have fun with it!

9. Juxtaposition

Juxtaposition refers to the placement of contrasting ideas next to each other, often to produce an ironic or thought-provoking effect. Writers use juxtaposition in both poetry and prose, though this common literary device looks slightly different within each realm of literature.

In poetry, juxtaposition is used to build tension or highlight an important contrast. Consider the poem “A Juxtaposition” by Kenneth Burke, which juxtaposes nation & individual, treble & bass, and loudness & silence. The result is a poem that, although short, condemns the paradox of a citizen trapped in their own nation.

Just a note: these juxtapositions are also examples of antithesis, which is when the writer juxtaposes two completely opposite ideas. Juxtaposition doesn’t have to be completely contrarian, but in this poem, it is.

Juxtaposition accomplishes something similar in prose. A famous example comes from the opening A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens: “It was the best of times, it was the worst of time.” Dickens opens his novel by situating his characters into a world of contrasts, which is apt for the extreme wealth disparities pre-French Revolution.

Juxtaposition Writing Exercise

One great thing about juxtaposition is that it can dismantle something that appears to be a binary. For example, black and white are often assumed to be polar opposites, but when you put them next to each other, you’ll probably get some gray in the middle.

To really master the art of juxtaposition, try finding two things that you think are polar opposites. They can be concepts, such as good & evil, or they can be people, places, objects, etc. Juxtapose your two selected items by starting your writing with both of them—for example:

Across the town from her wedding, the bank robbers were tying up the hostages.

I put the box of chocolates on the coffee table, next to the gas mask.

Then write a poem or short story that explores a “gray area,” relationship, commonality, or resonance between these two objects or events—without stating as much directly. If you can accomplish what Dickens or Burke accomplishes with their juxtapositions, then you, too, are a master!

10. Paradox

A paradox is a juxtaposition of contrasting ideas that, while seemingly impossible, actually reveals a deeper truth. One of the trickier literary devices, paradoxes are powerful tools for deconstructing binaries and challenging the reader’s beliefs.

A simple paradox example comes to us from Ancient Rome.

Catullus 85 (translated from Latin)

I hate and I love. Why I do this, perhaps you ask.
I know not, but I feel it happening and I am tortured.

Often, “hate” and “love” are assumed to be opposing forces. How is it possible for the speaker to both hate and love the object of his affection? The poem doesn’t answer this, merely telling us that the speaker is “tortured,” but the fact that these binary forces coexist in the speaker is a powerful paradox. Catullus 85 asks the reader to consider the absoluteness of feelings like hate and love, since both seem to torment the speaker equally.

Another paradox example comes from Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest.

“To be natural is such a very difficult pose to keep up.”

Here, “natural” and “pose” are conflicting ideas. Someone who poses assumes an unnatural state of being, whereas a natural poise seems effortless and innate. Despite these contrasting ideas, Wilde is exposing a deeper truth: to seem natural is often to keep up appearances, and seeming natural often requires the same work as assuming any other pose.

Note: paradox should not be confused with oxymoron. An oxymoron is also a statement with contrasting ideas, but a paradox is assumed to be true, whereas an oxymoron is merely a play on words (like the phrase “same difference”).

Paradox Writing Exercise

Paradox operates very similarly to literary devices like juxtaposition and irony. To write a paradox, juxtapose two binary ideas. Try to think outside of the box here: “hate and love” are an easy binary to conjure, so think about something more situational. Wilde’s paradox “natural and pose” is a great one; another idea could be the binaries “awkward and graceful” or “red-handed and innocent.”

Now, situate those binaries into a certain situation, and make it so that they can coexist. Imagine a scenario in which both elements of your binary are true at the same time. How can this be, and what can we learn from this surprising juxtaposition?

11. Allusion

If you haven’t noticed, literary devices are often just fancy words for simple concepts. A metaphor is literally a comparison and hyperbole is just an over-exaggeration. In this same style, allusion is just a fancy word for a literary reference; when a writer alludes to something, they are either directly or indirectly referring to another, commonly-known piece of art or literature.

The most frequently-alluded to work is probably the Bible. Many colloquial phrases and ideas stem from it, since many themes and images from the Bible present themselves in popular works, as well as throughout Western culture. Any of the following ideas, for example, are Biblical allusions:

  • Referring to a kind stranger as a Good Samaritan
  • Describing an ideal place as Edenic, or the Garden of Eden
  • Saying someone “turned the other cheek” when they were passive in the face of adversity
  • When something is described as lasting “40 days and 40 nights,” in reference to the flood of Noah’s Ark

Of course, allusion literary devices aren’t just Biblical. You might describe a woman as being as beautiful as the Mona Lisa, or you might call a man as stoic as Hemingway.

Why write allusions? Allusions appeal to common experiences: they are metaphors in their own right, as we understand what it means to describe an ideal place as Edenic.

Like the other common literary devices, allusions are often metaphors, images, and/or hyperboles. And, like other literary devices, allusions also have their own sub-categories.

Allusion Writing Exercise

See how densely you can allude to other works and experiences in writing about something simple. Go completely outside of good taste and name-drop like crazy:

Allusions (way too much version): I wanted Nikes, not Adidas, because I want to be like Mike. But still, “a rose by any other name”—they’re just shoes, and “if the shoe fits, wear it.”

From this frenetic style of writing, trim back to something more tasteful:

Allusions (more tasteful version): I had wanted Nikes, not Adidas—but “if the shoe fits, wear it.”

12. Allegory

An allegory is a story whose sole purpose is to represent an abstract concept or idea. As such, allegories are sometimes extended allusions, but the two common literary devices have their differences.

For example, George Orwell’s Animal Farm is an allegory for the deterioration of Communism during the early establishment of the U.S.S.R. The farm was founded on a shared goal of overthrowing the farming elite and establishing an equitable society, but this society soon declines. Animal Farm mirrors the Bolshevik Revolution, the overthrow of the Russian aristocracy, Lenin’s death, Stalin’s execution of Trotsky, and the nation’s dissolution into an amoral, authoritarian police state. Thus, Animal Farm is an allegory/allusion to the U.S.S.R.:

Allusion (excerpt from Animal Farm):

“There were times when it seemed to the animals that they worked longer hours and fed no better than they had done in [Farmer] Jones’s day.”

However, allegories are not always allusions. Consider Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave,” which represents the idea of enlightenment. By representing a complex idea, this allegory could actually be closer to an extended symbol rather than an extended allusion.

Allegory Writing Exercise

Pick a major trend going on in the world. In this example, let’s pick the growing reach of social media as our “major trend.”

Next, what are the primary properties of that major trend? Try to list them out:

  • More connectedness
  • A loss of privacy
  • People carefully massaging their image and sharing that image widely

Next, is there something happening at—or that could happen at—a much smaller scale that has some or all of those primary properties? This is where your creativity comes into play.

Well… what if elementary school children not only started sharing their private diaries, but were now expected to share their diaries? Let’s try writing from inside that reality:

I know Jennifer McMahon made up her diary entry about how much she misses her grandma. The tear smudges were way too neat and perfect. Anyway, everyone loved it. They photocopied it all over the bulletin boards and they even read it over the PA, and Jennifer got two extra brownies at lunch.

Try your own! You may find that you’ve just written your own Black Mirror episode.

13. Ekphrasis

Ekphrasis refers to a poem or story that is directly inspired by another piece of art. Ekphrastic literature often describes another piece of art, such as the classic “Ode on a Grecian Urn”:

O Attic shape! Fair attitude! with brede
Of marble men and maidens overwrought,
With forest branches and the trodden weed;
Thou, silent form, dost tease us out of thought
As doth eternity: Cold Pastoral!
When old age shall this generation waste,
Thou shalt remain, in midst of other woe
Than ours, a friend to man, to whom thou say’st,
“Beauty is truth, truth beauty,—that is all
Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.”

Ekphrasis can be considered a direct allusion because it borrows language and images from other artwork. For a great example of ekphrasis—as well as a submission opportunity for writers!—check out the monthly ekphrastic challenge that Rattle Poetry runs.

Ekphrasis writing exercise

Try your hand at ekphrasis by picking a piece of art you really enjoy and writing a poem or story based off of it. For example, you could write a story about Mona Lisa having a really bad day, or you could write a black-out poem created from the lyrics of your favorite song.

Or, try Rattle‘s monthly ekphrastic challenge! All art inspires other art, and by letting ekphrasis guide your next poem or story, you’re directly participating in a greater artistic and literary conversation.

14. Onomatopoeia

Flash! Bang! Wham! An onomatopoeia is a word that sounds like the noise it describes. Conveying both a playfulness of language and a serious representation of everyday sounds, onomatopoeias draw the reader into the sensations of the story itself.

Onomatopoeia words are most often used in poetry and in comic books, though they certainly show up in works of prose as well. Some onomatopoeias can be found in the dictionary, such as “murmur,” “gargle,” and “rumble,” “click,” and “vroom.” However, writers make up onomatopoeia words all the time, so while the word “ptoo” definitely sounds like a person spitting, you won’t find it in Merriam Webster’s.

Here’s an onomatopoeia example, from the poem “Honky Tonk in Cleveland, Ohio” by Carl Sandburg.

It’s a jazz affair, drum crashes and cornet razzes.
The trombone pony neighs and the tuba jackass snorts.
The banjo tickles and titters too awful.
The chippies talk about the funnies in the papers.
The cartoonists weep in their beer.

The onomatopoeias have been highlighted in bold. These common literary devices help make your writing fresh, interesting, and vivid, creating a sonic setting that the reader can fall into.

Learn more about onomatopoeias here!

Onomatopoeia Writing Exercise

Onomatopoeias are fun literary devices to use in your work, so have fun experimenting with them. In this exercise, take a moment to listen to the noises around you. Pay close attention to the whir of electronics, the fzzzzzzz of the heater, the rumbling of cars on the street, or the tintintintintin of rain on the roof.

Whatever you hear, convert those sounds into onomatopoeias. Make a list of those sounds. Try to use a mix of real words and made up ones: the way you represent noise in language can have a huge impact on your writing style.

Do this for 5 to 10 minutes, and when you have a comprehensive list of the sounds you hear, write a poem or short story that uses every single word you’ve written down.

15. Pun

If you built your political campaign off of wordplay, would you be punning for president?

A pun is a literary device that plays with the sounds and meanings of words to produce new, often humorous ideas. For example, let’s say you used too much butter in your recipe, and it ruined the dish. You might joke that you were “outside the margarine of error,” which is a play on the words “margin of error.”

Puns have a rich literary history, and famous writers like Shakespeare and Charles Dickens, as well as famous texts like The Bible, have used puns to add depth and gravity to their words.

Pun Writing Exercise

Jot down a word or phrase that you commonly use. If you’re not sure of what to write down, take a look at this list of English idioms. For example, I might borrow the phrase “blow off steam,” which means to let out your anger.

Take any saying, and play around with the sounds and meanings of the words in that saying. Then, incorporate the new phrase you’ve created into a sentence that allows for the double meaning of the phrase. Here’s two examples:

If I play with the sound of the words, I might come up with “blowing off stream.” Then, I would put that into a sentence that plays with the original meaning of the phrase. Like: “Did you hear about the river boat that got angry and went off course? It was blowing off stream.”

Or, I might play with the meanings of words. For example, I might take the word “blowing” literally, and write the following: “someone who cools down their tea when they’re angry is blowing off steam.”

Searching for ways to add double meanings and challenge the sounds of language will help you build fresh, exciting puns. Learn more about these common literary devices in our article on puns in literature.

16–27. Common Literary Devices in Poetry

The following 12 devices apply to both poetry and prose writers, but they appear most often in verse. Learn more about:

  1. Anaphora
  2. Conceit
  3. Apostrophe
  4. Metonymy/Synecdoche
  5. Enjambment
  6. Zeugma
  7. Repetition
  8. Rhyme
  9. Alliteration
  10. Consonance/Assonance
  11. Euphony/Cacophony
  12. Meter

12 Literary Devices in Poetry: Identifying Poetic Devices

28–37. Common Literary Devices in Prose

The following 10 devices show up in verse, but are far more prevalent in prose. Learn more about:

  1. Parallel Plot
  2. Foil
  3. Diction
  4. Mood
  5. Foreshadowing
  6. In Media Res
  7. Dramatic Irony
  8. Vignette
  9. Flashback
  10. Soliloquy

10 Important Literary Devices in Prose: Examples & Analysis

38–48. Repetition Literary Devices

Though they have uncommon names, these common literary devices are all forms of repetition.

  1. Anadiplosis
  2. Anaphora (prose)
  3. Antanaclasis
  4. Antimetabole
  5. Antistrophe
  6. Chiasmus
  7. Epanalepsis
  8. Epimone
  9. Epizeuxis
  10. Polyptoton
  11. Symploce

Repetition Definition: Types of Repetition in Poetry and Prose

49–57. Dialogue Literary Devices

While these literary elements pertain primarily to dialogue, writers use euphemisms, idioms, and neologisms all the time in their work.

  1. Colloquialism
  2. Vernacular
  3. Dialect
  4. Slang
  5. Jargon
  6. Idiom
  7. Euphemism
  8. Proverb
  9. Neologism

How to Write Dialogue in a Story

58–67. Word Play Literary Devices

The following literary devices push language to the limits. Have fun with these!

  1. Anthimeria
  2. Double Entendre
  3. Kenning
  4. Malapropism
  5. Metalepsis
  6. Oxymoron
  7. Palindrome
  8. Paraprosdokian
  9. Portmanteau
  10. Spoonerism

Word Play: Examples of a Play on Words

68–72. Parallelism Literary Devices

Parallelism is a stylistic device where a sentence is composed of equally weighted items. In essence, parallel structure allows form to echo content. Learn all about this essential stylistic literary device below.

  1. Grammatical parallelism
  2. Rhetorical parallelism
  3. Synthetic parallelism
  4. Antithetical parallelism
  5. Synonymous parallelism

Parallelism Definition: Writing With Parallel Structure


73–112. Rhetorical Devices

Rhetorical devices are literary devices intended to persuade the reader of something. You might have heard of ethos, pathos, and logos, but do you know your aposiopesis from your hyperbaton?

Many literary devices can also be considered rhetorical devices. After all, a metaphor can convince you of something just as well as a syllogism. Nonetheless, the following 40 rhetorical/literary devices will sharpen your style, argumentation, and writing abilities.

  1. Kairos
  2. Ethos
  3. Logos
  4. Pathos
  5. Anacoluthon
  6. Antithesis
  7. Asyndeton
  8. Hypallage
  9. Hyperbaton
  10. Hypotaxis
  11. Parataxis
  12. Polysyndeton
  13. Synesis
  14. Accismus
  15. Anecdote
  16. Antanagoge
  17. Aporia
  18. Bdelygmia
  19. Enthymeme
  20. Hypophora
  21. Procatalepsis
  22. Reductio ad Absurdum
  23. Syllogism
  24. Adynaton
  25. Amplification
  26. Antiphrasis
  27. Asterismos
  28. Litotes
  29. Meiosis
  30. Metanoia
  31. Paralipsis
  32. Overstatement
  33. Tmesis
  34. Adnomination
  35. Aposiopesis
  36. Circumlocution
  37. Dysphemism
  38. Ellipsis
  39. Isocolon
  40. Pleonasm

Common Rhetorical Devices List: The Art of Argument

Master These Common Literary Devices With Writers.com!

The instructors at Writers.com are masters of literary devices. Through masterful instruction and personal expertise, our instructors can help you add, refine, and improve your literary devices, helping you craft great works of literature. Check out our upcoming courses, and join our writing community on Facebook!

Sean Glatch

Sean Glatch is a poet, storyteller, and screenwriter based in New York City. His work has appeared in Ninth Letter, Milk Press,8Poems, The Poetry Annals, on local TV, and elsewhere. When he's not writing, which is often, he thinks he should be writing.


  1. Shubham gangola on June 10, 2021 at 6:15 pm

    Very nice the litrery divices

    • ang on June 15, 2021 at 4:59 pm

      yes true

      • Ibrahim on September 26, 2022 at 8:30 am

        Brilliant litery devices

        • kakekmerah4d on April 24, 2024 at 3:22 am

          Love this article thank you

          • Success on June 10, 2024 at 7:12 am

            Good literary devices

        • Nigel on April 28, 2024 at 7:28 am

          My stoonts confess to having trouble with “poultry”.

      • Nifemi on October 31, 2023 at 4:55 am

        I love this literary term it help a lot

    • John Cocinas Ph.D on August 10, 2021 at 12:43 pm

      thank you this was life-changing

      • mirwa on October 22, 2021 at 6:29 am


        • Nifemi on October 31, 2023 at 4:55 am

          I love this literary term it help a lot

    • Boris on January 10, 2022 at 7:42 pm

      Broaden the vucablry it does

    • Suresh Bala on February 15, 2024 at 7:08 pm

      Very effectively and simply elaborated

    • Nigel on April 28, 2024 at 7:33 am

      I am trying think of the specific literary structure based on loosely assembled episodes set within the framework of a journey: it is not quixotic, peripatetic, itinerant…always on the tip of my tongue. Help!

      • Lol, these comments! on May 29, 2024 at 7:00 am


  2. HB on August 29, 2021 at 2:27 pm

    enjoyed this (and learned some new things, too). HB

    • Atebata Jane on May 3, 2023 at 10:14 am

      Wow, very educating and nice!
      Quite helpful

  3. Moronfoluwa on September 5, 2021 at 9:54 am

    It is very nice visiting this site.

  4. Jalen Cooper on October 7, 2021 at 2:31 pm

    This was put together profoundly; thank you! As a writer, you can never learn enough. I will begin incorporating these into my stories. Words can’t express how helpful this was, and it was very efficiently put together as well, so kudos to that!

    • Sean Glatch on October 8, 2021 at 5:01 am

      I’m so happy this article helped you, Jalen! Happy writing!

  5. Jor on October 18, 2021 at 3:13 am

    Thank you for this article! It really helped a lot!
    hands up to the good samaritan of understanding literature :D.

    But I would have one last question: Would any sort of intertextuality be considered an Allusion? (Also when you refer to the author for example?)

    • Sean Glatch on October 18, 2021 at 3:57 am

      Hi Jor,

      Great questions! That’s a great way to think about allusion–any sort of intertextuality is indeed allusive. In fact, your use of “Good Samaritan” is an allusion to the Bible, even if you didn’t mean it to be!

      And yes, because an allusion is anything referential, then a reference to another author also counts as an allusion. Of course, it can’t be directly stated: “She’s reading Shakespeare” doesn’t count, but “She worships the Immortal Bard” would be an allusion. (It’s also an allusion to the story of the same name by Isaac Asimov).

      I’m glad to hear our article was helpful. Happy reading!

      • Tracy on October 22, 2021 at 6:25 am

        This will help! Thanks!

  6. Oi on October 21, 2021 at 7:05 am

    There is also Onomatopoeia, you can make the list 45

    • Jess Ricamond on October 22, 2021 at 6:13 am


    • Simon on October 22, 2021 at 6:23 am


  7. Gwen Hopkins on October 22, 2021 at 6:10 am

    This article really helped me, the techniques are amazing, and the detail is incredible. Thank you for taking your time to write this!

    • Sean Glatch on October 22, 2021 at 6:18 am

      I’m so glad this was helpful, Gwen! Happy writing!

  8. Jess Ricamond on October 22, 2021 at 6:12 am

    this was useful 🙂 thanks

  9. Simon on October 22, 2021 at 6:14 am


  10. mirwa on October 22, 2021 at 6:28 am

    I love personification; you can do so much with it.

  11. Nate on October 22, 2021 at 6:40 am

    Hi, I’m really sorry but I am still confused with juxtaposition.

    • Sean Glatch on October 22, 2021 at 7:04 am

      Hi Nate! Juxtaposition simply describes when contrasting ideas are placed next to each other. The effect of juxtaposition depends on the ideas that are being juxtaposed, but the point is to surprise or provoke the reader.

      Take, for example, the opening line of Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoy: “Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.”

      Here, happy and unhappy families are being juxtaposed, and the contrast between the two is meant to provoke the reader and highlight the differences between those families. This juxtaposition sets up the novel as a whole, which often discusses themes of family and happiness (among many other themes).

      I hope this helps!

  12. Diablow on October 26, 2021 at 5:12 pm

    Thanks man

  13. danny dimes on November 3, 2021 at 9:49 am

    very nice indeed

  14. 🖋 Writing Links Round Up 11/8 – B. Shaun Smith on November 8, 2021 at 10:11 am

    […] 33 Common Literary Devices: Definitions, Examples, and Exercises […]

  15. […] 44 Common Literary Devices: Definitions, Examples, and Exercises […]

  16. Queency Luke on February 6, 2022 at 12:46 am

    Very nice

  17. Smart ella on March 8, 2022 at 11:57 am

    Thanks a lot for this it was really nice, good and fun to read it and it was really helpful for me as a student👔so please keep up with the good work 😉🌹💖😚😍💝💞💐

    • JOE BROWN on February 24, 2023 at 5:15 am


  18. Abigail kwenye on March 13, 2022 at 10:44 am

    Really helping. It’s a wonderful article

  19. Wendy on April 8, 2022 at 12:35 am

    O mother Ghana, teach your children to change their negative attitudes towards you and what you have
    Please which literary device is this?

    • Sean Glatch on April 8, 2022 at 3:01 am

      Hi Wendy,

      The device employed here is called apostrophe, which is when the writer addresses something not actually present for literary effect. Read more about it at this link.

  20. Sofairah: So-fair-a on April 20, 2022 at 7:47 pm

    This was very effective towards my writing and my family really enoyed seeing how much I had learnt. Thanks a lot.

  21. mae on May 1, 2022 at 3:47 am

    so irony is literally sarcasm then

    • Sean Glatch on May 1, 2022 at 7:48 am

      Hi Mae,

      Sometimes! Sarcasm is a form of verbal irony.

      Verbal irony occurs when a person intentionally says the opposite of what they mean. For example, you might say “I’m having the best day ever” after getting hit by a car.

      Sarcasm is the use of verbal irony with the intent of mocking someone or something. You might say “Good going, genius” to someone who made a silly mistake, implying they’re not a genius at all.

      Hope that makes sense!

  22. Clovis on May 3, 2022 at 3:01 am

    Love this article! I used to struggle in my literature class, but after reading though this article, I certainly improved! Thanks! However, I have one question I really need your help with- Can I assume that a phrase which is the slightest bit plausible, a hyperbole? For example, a young elementary student who is exceptionally talented in basketball, to such an extent that he was quite famous nation-wide, said that he would be the next Lebron James although he was still very young. Would this be considered as a hyperbole? It would be great if you can help me with this.

    • Sean Glatch on May 3, 2022 at 3:07 am

      Hi Clovis,

      That’s a great question! Although that claim is certainly exaggerated, it probably wouldn’t be hyperbole, because the child believes it to be true. A hyperbole occurs when the writer makes an exaggerated statement that they know to be false–e.g. “I’ve been waiting a billion years for this.”

      Of course, if the child is self-aware and knows they’re just being cheeky, then it would be hyperbole, but I get the sense that the child genuinely believes they’re the next Lebron. 🙂

      I’m glad this article has helped you in your literature class!

      • Clovis on May 3, 2022 at 3:13 am

        That makes a lot of sense, thanks for your reply!

  23. Clovis on May 3, 2022 at 3:40 am

    Sorry, I have another question related to hyperbole. This is an extract from Animal Farm:

    “Squealer was sent to make the necessary explanation to the others. ‘Comrades!’ he cried. ‘You do not imagine, I hope, that we pigs are doing this in a spirit of selfishness and privilege? Many of us actually dislike milk and apples. I dislike them myself. Our sole object in taking these things is to preserve our health. Milk and apples (this has been proved by Science, comrades) contain substances absolutely necessary to the well being of a pig. We pigs are brain-workers. The whole management and organisation of this farm depend on us. Day and night we are watching over your welfare. It is for your sake that we drink that milk and eat those apples. Do you know what would happen if we pigs failed in our duty? Jones would come back! Yes, Jones would come back! Surely, comrades,’ cried Squealer almost pleadingly, skipping from side to side and whisking his tail, ‘surely there is no one among you who wants to see Jones come back?’ Now if there was one thing that the animals were completely certain of, it was that they did not want Jones back. When it was put to them in this light, they had no more to say. The importance of keeping the pigs in good health was all too obvious.”

    May I know if the speech made by Squealer in this extract is a hyperbole, gaslight (I’m not sure if this is a literary device), or some other device(s)? I know this is very wordy so you can take your time, no rush.

    (I am doing a chapter analysis of chapter 3 in Animal Farm)

    • Clovis on May 3, 2022 at 3:48 am

      By the way, if you have written any other articles, please let me know! I would like to read them, thanks!

    • Sean Glatch on May 3, 2022 at 4:12 am

      It wouldn’t be hyperbole, as a hyperbole is usually a word or phrase, not an entire passage of text. It’s better to analyze this passage in terms of its rhetorical strategies: Squealer is appealing to nebulous ideas like Science and the return of Jones–appeals to logos and pathos, despite there being a lack of evidence.

      These strategies are logical fallacies: arguments that are easily disproven through reasoning, but which often resonate when people don’t employ critical thinking. Some of the fallacies here are “appeal to fear” and the “false dilemma” that Jones will return if the pigs don’t eat apples and milk (this is also a “red herring”).

      I can’t provide much more help than this, as I don’t want to write your assignment for you, but I’m happy to point you in this direction, because understanding how logical fallacies are abused is essential to being an informed reader and citizen. 🙂

      • Clovis on May 4, 2022 at 1:56 am

        Ok, thanks for your reply!

  24. Isla on May 31, 2022 at 6:21 am

    Thank you! I am studying for an English final and this was a life saver!

    • Sean Glatch on May 31, 2022 at 6:22 am

      My pleasure, Isla, good luck on your final!

  25. Mhianna on June 26, 2022 at 5:32 am

    I have a literature exam coming up,so this was much needed.Thank you!

    • Ochieng Joseph on January 27, 2023 at 6:43 am

      Indeed this has been of great help to me.

  26. Alfred Joseph on September 20, 2022 at 7:54 am

    I am so greatful of this website it really helps me a lot about myself and my family

    • Blessed Justice ke Eshun on October 3, 2022 at 5:32 pm

      This is awesome

  27. Aeman Ayub on October 11, 2022 at 4:11 am

    This website is very useful to understand litery devices…

  28. ellah on October 18, 2022 at 9:20 am

    thanks it was helpful

  29. Genny on October 30, 2022 at 7:54 am

    Hi what is the name of the literary device where you name a character after their personality eg. Mr Knighley, Miss honey or Miss Trunchball? Thank you

    • Sean Glatch on October 31, 2022 at 3:27 am

      Hi Genny,

      That’s called an “aptronym”!

  30. Claybourne Scott on November 13, 2022 at 3:40 am

    Mind blowing indeed. I had no idea there were so many names for patterns I hear people use with words. This lis is great as is. I am using it to probe further into what they are. I would only suggest that if the time ever allowed for someone to provide a brief detail or definition to each it would save a lot of time for many like me. None the less, I am grateful for the work provided. Thank you.

  31. Anonymous Person on November 30, 2022 at 4:17 am

    It is personification as well as apostrophe, as Sean suggested. Ghana (the nation, I am assuming) is personified as a mother who is able to teach her citizens (children) to change their negative attitudes towards her.

  32. Dua on January 13, 2023 at 8:23 am

    Helped alot😊

    • Layla on January 19, 2023 at 8:12 am

      This has truly helped me alot. Definitely great

  33. Ike on January 25, 2023 at 10:30 am

    Thanks so much, I never knew the list to this was as tall as everest, way back in school I didn’t take lit lessons serious and forgot everything til it came to mind to revise these devices
    And here google landed me, and thanks again so much.

  34. Abdul Razak on January 29, 2023 at 5:25 pm

    This is awesome,it truly help me alot

  35. Liane on January 30, 2023 at 3:27 am

    It was great fun I had an amazing time doing the literary exercises and they helped so much. They really expanded my knowledge of the entire topic it was a wonderful thing to read, it will definitely help me with any English essay I have in the future.

  36. Martha sam on February 2, 2023 at 9:24 am

    It was very helpful. I must say that I have a better understanding of these literary devices. It was wonderful reading them.

  37. rencana umroh on May 2, 2023 at 8:33 pm

    Thank you for this article! It really helped a lot!
    hands up to the good samaritan of understanding literature :D.

  38. EBELE on May 10, 2023 at 7:27 am

    I am overjoyed in knowing that we have different types of literary devices in literature. Thank you for this interesting article.

  39. Bright on July 18, 2023 at 4:27 am

    This is awesome

  40. Lawrencia on September 3, 2023 at 11:44 am

    This is excellent and amazing.

  41. Tracy Walker on September 6, 2023 at 7:00 pm

    This information was very useful
    Appreciated 🤗🙏

  42. Michael Korman on November 11, 2023 at 12:35 pm

    Thank you so much, I was literarily dying because of my English final!! I needed all these literal devices.

  43. Collins on December 10, 2023 at 11:19 pm

    This article has really elevated me in the world of Literature.Thanks sir

  44. Durga sen on December 12, 2023 at 4:25 am


  45. Rose Lartey Frimpong on December 28, 2023 at 10:20 am

    This information is very important to me in my education .
    Thank you very much.

  46. Ramson Acheme on January 5, 2024 at 6:29 am

    The articles are well written and the concepts well explained to the understanding of a beginner. The simplified way the author explained every term makes the article not only an interesting read but also a good note for teaching.

    • Amani gold on January 10, 2024 at 11:45 am

      The litrarery device is the best way to get a knowledge in education

  47. Blessing Shumba on January 11, 2024 at 4:29 pm

    I liked it and the English is understandable

  48. Smitha on January 22, 2024 at 9:23 am

    Can Dystopia be considered a kind of literary device?

  49. Olive on January 23, 2024 at 7:26 am

    Thank you so much for this! It helped me get ready for my English exam.

    • Sean Glatch on January 23, 2024 at 7:27 am

      Best of luck on your exam, Olive!

  50. CK on February 10, 2024 at 2:42 pm

    Thank you so much! I learned so much that I can use in my upcoming assignments for writing.

    • Elizabeth Atanga on February 13, 2024 at 4:57 am

      Thank you so much .
      I learned so much understanding of my semester exams

  51. Ebukacollins on February 26, 2024 at 1:52 pm

    Exactly this was really really helpful to everyone including me

  52. Esther yeboah on March 13, 2024 at 11:53 am

    Great definition and examples

  53. Faith on April 1, 2024 at 11:26 am

    I love this so much

  54. […] 112 Common Literary Devices: Definitions, Examples, and Exercises […]

  55. SOMEBODY :) on April 18, 2024 at 7:14 am

    This was Uber helpful! BUT, I do wish that we got more examples, and I can see why you made it shorter. If you put examples for all of them, then this would be really long.

  56. Abugri Elisha on May 8, 2024 at 6:34 am

    Thanks! So detailed

  57. Abugri Elisha on May 8, 2024 at 6:56 am

    Yah! That’s really the fact.

  58. Literary Devices on June 15, 2024 at 12:14 pm

    Thanks for sharing a huge list of literary devices. Very helpful article.

  59. Sunila Damayanthi on June 17, 2024 at 3:35 am

    Very much appreciated and greatest work for those who are interested in learning literature. Thanks a lot.

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